A. Original Articles
The total length should not exceed 5,000 words (excluding the abstract, references, and table/figure legends). The total number of tables and figures should be fewer than 10.
Manuscripts should begin with the title page followed by an abstract and key words, introduction, methods, results, discussion, conflicts of interest, acknowledgments, references (up to 40 references), tables and/or figures.
Acronyms should be avoided where possible. Where a complex or cumbersome term or phrase is repeatedly used, however, it should be abbreviated, preferably using standard abbreviations. The abbreviation should be appear in parentheses following the first use of the term or phrase and can then be used in the remainder of the text.
Human names, regional names and other proper nouns should be used in their original form. Arabic numerals should be used. Laboratory measurements should be expressed in SI (Standard International) units. A single space is usually required between the numeral and the unit; no space is inserted for % and ˚C.
The title page should contain the following information: (1) title (less than 150 characters, including spaces); (2) author list (first name, middle name, and last name); (3) name of the institutions at which the work was performed; (4) name, address, telephone, fax number, and e-mail address of the corresponding author; (5) running title (less than 50 characters, including spaces).
Abstract and Keywords
A structured abstract of up to 250 words should be provided, containing categories such as Background, Methods, Results and Conclusions. The objectives, observations and main results should be provided.
Three to ten keywords, reflecting the contents of the manuscript, should be included. Authors should use MeSH (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh) terms from Index Medicus. The first character of each word should be in upper case.
Relevant background information should be briefly set out and the objectives of the study should be clearly and concisely stated.
Materials and Methods
This section should be detailed, and should be presented in a structured format, including study plan, materials and methods used. Statistical methods used for data analysis should be provided. In the case of clinical trials, authentication and approval from the Institutional Review Board should be specified.
For equipment and reagents, the manufacturer, city and country should be provided in parentheses.
A detailed description of the study results should be arranged in a logical manner. In the case of experimental studies, the bulk of the data should be presented in figures and tables. The contents of figures and tables should not be repeated in the main text. However, the main findings should be presented in the main text, with emphasis on the important trends, statistical significance and key points.
The significance and implications of novel and important findings should be clearly and concisely presented, without unnecessary duplication of results. Based on this argument, plausible hypotheses could be proposed if warranted. Conclusions should refer to the study objectives.
Conflicts of Interest
Any potential conflicts of interest must be disclosed in this section. If there are no potential financial conflicts of interest, the following statement should be added: "No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported."
Co-workers and others who contributed significantly to the current study, but were not co-authors, should be mentioned in the acknowledgements. All sources of financial and other support should also be stated.
References should be ordered according to order of appearance in the text, using Vancouver style. Journal abbreviations should follow Index Medicus. Unpublished data should preferably not be cited. Where this is unavoidable, however, the source should be placed in parentheses in the main text and such expressions as “personal opinion exchange” or “unpublished data” should be used.
* The citation superscript style is as follows:
Lee1 is --. -- 2,3-5. -- does1,2,
* Style for reference list:
1) Journal citations
Drazen JM, Israel E, Boushey HA, Chinchilli VM, Fahy JV, Fish JE, et al. Comparison of regularly scheduled with as-needed use of albuterol in mild asthma. N Engl J Med 1996;335:841-7.
Doig GS, Simpson F, Heighes PT, Bellomo R, Chesher D, Caterson ID, et al. Restricted versus continued standard caloric intake during the management of refeeding syndrome in critically ill adults: a randomised, parallel-group, multicentre, single-blind controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2015 Nov 16. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(15)00418-X. [Epub ahead of print]
All co-authors should be listed unless there are more than seven authors, in which case the first six are listed, followed by “et al.".
2) Whole books
The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. Respiratory diseases. 1st ed. Seoul: Koon Ja Publishing, Inc.; 2004.
Light RW. Pleural diseases. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.
3) Book chapters
Ryu SH. Pulmonary vascular diseases. In: Han YC editor. Clinical pulmonology. Seoul: Ilchokak; 1990. p. 252-8.
McFadden ER Jr. Chapter 236. Asthma. In: Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, editors. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 16th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Co, Inc.; 2005. p. 1508-16.
4) Electronic references
World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis report 2015. WHO/HTM/TB/2015.22. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. Available at: http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en [accessed 30 October 2015].
5) Other types of literature should be formatted are based on ‘Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers’.
Tables should be concise. Use horizontal lines only. Number tables in the order in which they are mentioned in the main text, and refer to them in the text as follows:
--- is represented (Table 1). Table 2 represents ---
Place the title above the table, using sentence case. Below each table, provide a key to abbreviations and additional explanations if needed. Table footnotes should use these symbols: *, †, ‡, §,∥, ¶, **, †† and ‡‡.
BAL: bronchoalveolar lavage; ICU: intensive care unit;
NS: not significant.
Tables and legends should provide enough detail that the study data can be understood without reference to the main text.
Figures include graphs, line drawings and photographs. All figures in JPG (JPEG) or TIF (TIFF) format should be submitted separately from the main manuscript. Images should be clear, with resolution exceeding 300 dpi. Each figure should be accompanied by a number. It should be possible for readers to understand the figures without reference to the text. Number the figures in the order in which they are mentioned in the main text, and refer to them in the text as follows:
--- is shown (Figure 1). Figure 2 shows ---
If any images were not generated by the authors, this should be stated and the source provided.
The magnification ratios should not be written for the photos taken via light microscopy. However, the magnification ratios and the names of the special staining methods, and the magnification ratios of the photomicrographs of electron microscopy should be briefly noted.
B. Review Articles
Review articles are generally prepared in the same format as original articles, but the details of manuscript format may be flexible according to the contents. They are organized as follows: title page, abstract and keywords, introduction, body text, conclusion, conflict of interests, acknowledgments, references, tables, and figure legends. There should be an unstructured abstract equal to or less than 250 words. The length of the text excluding references, tables, and figures should not exceed 5,000 words, with up to 100 references.
C. Images of Interest
Original, high-quality images are considered for publication (subject to editing and abridgment). There should be no more than two figures and five authors and they should not exceed 300 words in total, with up to 10 references. An abstract is not required.
Editorials are invited by the Editor-in-Chief and should be commentaries on original articles published in the same issue of the Journal. Editorials should not exceed 1,000 words (excluding references, tables, and figures) and contain no more than 15 references. An abstract is not required.
E. Letters to the Editor
Letter to the Editor concerning recent publications in the TRD will be published through review and approval by the editors when its scientific quality is acceptable and space in the TRD is available. A Letter to the Editor should be concise and no longer than 1,000 words. It should have a title, distinct from the title of the referenced article, an unstructured main content, and a list of references which should be no more than 10. Only one table or figure would be accepted. An abstract is not required.